In the intermediate and advanced sequences, students concentrate on the development of reading, interpretative, and technical skills introduced in the introductory sequence. By the completion of the fourth semester or its equivalent, students will demonstrate competency in the following skills.


  • Students will significantly increase the speed with which a text is read, the degree of comfort with which idiomatic and irregular constructions are handled, and the rigor with which a text’s grammar and syntax are analyzed.
  • With some appropriate vocabulary help, students will be able to read at sight Greek texts of moderate difficulty.
  • Students will be able to appreciate and explain the different styles and rhetorical techniques employed by poets and prose writers operating within different literary genres.  
  • Students will recite extended passages of Greek with special attention given to the proper reading of poetry.
  • Students will scan and develop an understanding of metrics beyond hexameters and elegiacs.


Students will deepen their understanding of the ancient world through the study of a wide variety of texts within their cultural and literary contexts.




Students will master the use of key reference tools for each language, e.g. grammars, lexica, electronic data bases, in order to be able to conduct significant independent research in the target languages.